The Stuart Restoration
Part 1 - 1685-1813
1685 - King Charles II of England and Scotland dies without legitimate
heirs. His brother, the Duke of York, ascends the throne as King
James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland)
1688 - King James II/VII is overthrown in the Glorious Revolution
by William of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. William and
his wife (King James's daughter) take the throne as William III and Mary
1689 - The English Bill of Rights is enacted, forbidding any
Catholic from ever holding the throne. This excludes James II/VII
and his family.
1701 - The exiled King James II/VII dies in exile in France.
His son is proclaimed King James III/VIII by the Jacobite party.
1710 - After Queen Anne dies without heirs, Elector George of
Hanover is made King as George I by the British Parliament.
1715 - A Jacobite rebellion fails to overthrow the Hanovers.
1745 - Charles Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), the son of "King
James III/VIII", launches a rebellion against the Hanoverians from Scotland.
--POD-- Despite his chief leaders' advice, Charles decided to press on
deep into English territory. This act of bravery wins over some of
the English. Charles also appeals to the nonconformists, promising
religious freedom. Though loathe to accept a Catholic king, they
also are loath to maintain Anglican supremacy, and many join the Bonnie
Prince's army. The son of King George II, a good general in his own
right and who could have defeated the prince, is killed by a stray bullet.
King George flees from London to the continent. A Tory faction takes
control of Parliament and declares the Hanovers have abdicated. The
English people reluctantly support the Stuarts. The aged James Stuart
sets foot in England for the first time in well over fifty years, and is
hailed as "King James" as he makes his way to London. James, not
wanting to lose his throne too quickly, agrees to allow Parliament to continue
to share in power. Many in Parliament were happy to see a "true Englishman"
back on the throne, so they relent. James Stuart is crowned in Westminster
Abbey as King James III of England and James VIII of Scotland. He
abrogates the Act of Union between England and Scotland, as well as the
Act of Settlement of 1701. He declares total freedom of Christian
worship and agrees not to interfere with the Anglican Church. (these royal
acts are confirmed by Parliament to show a semblance of Parliamentary rule).
The King does not have enough power to rule absolutely, much as he would
James III, King of England (James VIII, King of Scotland)
1758-63 - Austria's invasion of Silesia precipitates the Seven Years'
War. England's American colonies are attacked by Spain. France,
the ally of Spain yet friends with England, is reluctant to fight the English,
and spares few of its forces for the American theater of the war, though
it gives financial help to Spain. Ultimately, England defeats the
Spanish forces. This leads to the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which
Cuba, Florida, and the Philippines are ceded to England. France,
ally of Spain, must cede Louisiana and Hispaniola to the victorious English
- they are allowed to keep Quebec, however.
1764 - Parliament decides to begin taxing the American colonies
on documents and sugar. This begins to anger the Americans who are
1766 - King James III/VIII dies in London. His son, the
beloved "Bonnie Prince", is made King Charles III. His coronation
caps off a great celebration as he was a most well-beloved Prince and people
are hopeful for a glorious reign.
Charles III, King of England and Scotland
1768 - King Charles falls in love with Susanna Thomas, an English
peasant. He wishes to marry her, though it's not a real probability.
He ends up marrying her in secret, and she later bears a son, James Charles
Francis Stuart. The child is not recognized, and Susanna is sent
to America with her son.
1770 - A small band of radicals in Boston provoke the British
guard to fire into a small crowd. Five are killed in what radical
Paul Revere terms "The Boston Massacre". The soldiers are acquitted
of all charges, but King Charles still sends an official royal apology
for the incident, which simmers things down.
1774-5 - Americans continue to oppose more Parliamentary taxes
and meet in two "Continental Congresses" to protest. Lord North,
the Prime Minister, declares the Americans in rebellion and out of British
protection. A few skirmishes with the British are fought, and some
radical Congressmen call for independence, but are not too convincing.
1776 - Congress, over radical protests, asks King Charles to
step in. He sends emissaries to meet with some leaders, and they
meet in secret with moderates John Adams, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson,
and George Washington. They offer the Americans representation in
Parliament. Franklin, however, proposes a Union of the Colonies,
with its own legislature but still under the rule of the King of England.
The emissaries return to Charles hoping for peace. While the radicals
in Congress and Lord North in Parliament prepare for war, the moderates'
proposal is reviewed by the King, who likes Franklin's idea. King
Charles, knowing North will never acquiesce, promptly dismisses North in
favor of William Pitt. The moderates travel to London when Parliament
approves a plan based on Franklin's proposal: a) the colonies will be united
into a Federal union, which will split power with the individual provinces;
b) The American Union will be made equal with England and Scotland, with
Charles as emperor; c) The Continental Congress will be elevated to full
legislative body, subject to the King-Emperor. A radical force tries
to prevent the moderates from accomplishing this, but their small force
is defeated by General Washington.
1777 - In the early weeks of this year, the 18 colonies (the
13 plus East & West Florida, Orleans [roughly the state of Louisiana
in OTL], Cuba, and St. Dominic) agree to the Franklin plan. By summer,
Congress has been elected and seated in Philadelphia for the new Federation
of North America. King Charles appoints Ben Franklin as his Governor-General
and Washington as Commander in Chief of the American forces, while Congress
makes John Adams (Tory-MA) its President (basically a PM). On August 28,
King Charles III of England, Scotland, and Ireland arrives in Philadelphia
for his coronation. He is acclaimed "His Imperial and Royal Majesty,
Charles I, Emperor of the Americas", and Congress erupts with wild cheers
after his Imperial address. The new Emperor-King then wraps himself
with the Grand Imperial Flag to symbolize his own loyalty to the nation.
1788 - Charles III/I dies in London. Much of the greater British
Empire mourns. Gov-Gen Franklin and President Adams attend his funeral.
His brother, Cardinal York, becomes King as Henry IX/I. A small group
wishes Charles's son to take the throne, but he is considered semi-legitimate
at best, and has no real claim. Since Henry is a Catholic priest,
some are worried that he will try to restore Rome, but he promises not
1794 - Popular discontent with King Louis XVI in France blows
up into revolt. Within five years, radicals take control and declare
France a Republic. Though there is no American revolution to inspire
them, this only postpones the inevitable. King Louis tries to flee,
but he is captured. He is killed in 1797, but Stuart agents whisk
his son to England. Foreign powers try to intervene, but are stopped
by the French, who are soon led by General Napoleon Bonaparte. The
Revolution goes a similar course throughout Europe as in OTL.
1800-1850 - An industrial revolution spreads throughout the
western world, sinilar to that of OTL.
1805 - Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France. In England,
King Henry becomes more and more reactionary. He attempts to get
the Pope to a refuge in England, which does not hold well with England's
Protestants. Since Henry has wanted to rule on his own, he has picked
weak PMs, which prevent Britain from being as great a power against France
as in OTL. Some people in England see Henry attempting to restore
absolutism, and revolution foments. Napoleon and his Spanish allies
defeat the English in a battle off La Rochelle, and are soon able to get
French troops onto British soil. King Henry flees to Scotland, and
a revolutionary government proclaims the Britannic Republic, though the
French advance is stopped at the Scottish border. Much guerilla warfare
continues on the border for the next few years. France is unsuccessful
in appealing to the Irish, who also fight hard for the Stuarts.
1806 - King Henry decides to relocate the government-in-exile
to America. He is welcomed by America and President Thomas Jefferson
(W-VA). Napoleon's forces in Quebec launch an invasion of America,
which is easily repelled.
1807 - King Henry IX/I dies in America. Succession presents
a problem - Charles's so-called illegitimate son live in America, while
the next in line to the Legitimists is King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia,
who Parliament-in-exile makes King Victor I. Scotland agrees to this.
This year, Napoleon nearly completes his mastery of Europe, while still
bogged down in Britain. Spanish troops in Mexico begin an invasion
of Louisiana on Napoleon's orders, but the few Spanish in Mexico are easily
repulsed. A Congressional regency is declared in America, which among
other things outlaws the slave trade.
1809 - Napoleon invades Spain and makes his brother King.
He also gives the throne of England to Marshal Ney, who styles himself
"King Michael I".
1813 - Napoleon launches his attack on Russia, but must move
forces from Britain and Spain to do so. This gives the Allies their
chance; American President Madison sends an American Expeditionary Force into
the British isles, led by General Andrew Jackson. He arrives in North
Scotland in August, and sweeps into England with his Anglo-Scot-American
force. Another force of Irish and English soldiers led by General
Arthur Wellesley enters via Wales. By the beginning of November,
Marshal Ney is out of England with the rest of the French. Britons
welcome the two Generals into London with open arms. King Henry's
body, which was on one of the American ships, is buried at Westminster